Answered Essay: 1. Explain how the “Four Principles of Data Collection” ( multiple sources of data

1. Explain how the “Four Principles of Data Collection” ( multiple sources of data/evidence, developing a database for the case study, ensuring appropriate links of evidence, and being careful when utilizing electronic data) from Yin (2014) to support your ability to address your DBA doctoral research question.

The research question is ‘what strategies are some nonbank financial institutions using to increased their customer base’.

2. Explain the importance of utilizing multiple sources of evidence and triangulation within the data collection process. Be sure to address the specific types of data triangulation (data, investigation, investigator, methodological) and their relationship to data quality. Be sure to provide a scholarly example to support your explanation.

question 2 is a sub set of question 1

Expert Answer

Robert k.yin’s case study research and design and methods 2014 is for researchers who are going a little deeper into some elements. Yin continues to defend case study research as an integral and rigorous methodology and present his work in a very readable manner. This book redefine definition and more detailed information on certain topics.

Multiple sources of data/evidence:-

  1. Documents
  2. Archival records
  3. Interviews
  4. Direct observation
  5. Participant observation
  6. Physical artifacts

Objective is to collect data from the actual human effects and behaviour.

               Developing a database for the case study:-

Database is the group of files which are related to the objective containing the data collected by the researcher. Mason 2010 report stated that reports that are based on his research on 2553 phd studies using qualitative approaches, case study is the most popular approach accounting for 55.3% of the total phd students under investigation. Case studies based on mixed methods research designs have expanded over years.

Ensuring appropriate links of evidence:-

the logical steps to link the research question and issues to data collection, interpretation and analysis in a coherent way. It identifies the 5 components:-

  1. A study’ question
  2. Its propositions
  3. Its units
  4. The logical linking of data of propositions
  5. The base of interpretation

Being careful in utilizing the electronic data:

Electronic community network is beneficial in some way. The electronic community networks have three type of users. One the people around the world who use the data, second is non profit organisation and the third is community that forms as a result of interaction.

Data triangulation validates the data by re examining the same information. This increases the credibility and validity. This occurs when multiple sources of data are used. Some approaches of triangulation are:-

  1. Data source- combines various types of data sources
  2. Methodology- combines various methods
  3. Theory- using more than one theoretical method


  1. Give more deeply insight to the topic
  2. Minimize the inadequacy
  3. Ensures validity and verification
  4. More trusty data is obtained
  5. Ease to draw conclusion


Based on data hypothesis , investigator produces hypothesis or explain the phenomena

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