Answered Essay: 1. The performance of a client-server system is strongly influenced by two major network characteristics: the bandwidth of the network (that is, how

1. The performance of a client-server system is strongly influenced by two major network characteristics: the bandwidth of the network (that is, how many bits/sec it can transport) and the latency (that is, how many seconds it takes for the first bit to get from the client to the server). Give an example of a network that exhibits high bandwidth but also high latency. Then give an example of one that has both low bandwidth and low latency.

2. What are two reasons for using layered protocols? What is one possible disadvantage of using layered protocols?

3. What is the main difference between TCP and UDP?

4. An image is 1600 × 1200 pixels with 3 bytes/pixel. Assume the image is uncompressed. How long does it take to transmit it over a 56-kbps modem channel? Over a 1-Mbps cable modem?

5. Calculate the end-to-end transit time for a packet for both GEO (altitude: 35,800 km), MEO (altitude: 18,000 km) and LEO (altitude: 750 km) satellites.

6. Three packet-switching networks each contain n nodes. The first network has a star topology with a central switch, the second is a (bidirectional) ring, and the third is fully interconnected, with a wire from every node to every other node. What are the best-, average-, and worst-case transmission paths in hops?

Expert Answer

 

Q3.

TCP

  1. TCP is the short form of Transmission Control Protocol.
  2. It is a protocol which is connection oriented.
  3. It is more used for applications which need more reliability and time to transmit is not that critical.
  4. It transmits packet slower than UDP does.
  5. It is guaranteed that the packet will arrive at the destination.
  6. It is used by protocols like HTTP and Telnet.
  7. It has header size of 20 bytes.
  8. TCP has provision for error checking and reporting if needed.
  9. It has segments for acknowledgement.
  10. It establishes connection with a three way handshaking.

UDP

  1. TCP is the short form of Transmission User Datagram Protocol.
  2. It is a protocol which is connectionless.
  3. It is used in applications where fast transmission is needed.
  4. It transmits packet faster than TCP does.
  5. It is unsure if the packet will arrive at the destination or not.
  6. It is used by protocols DHCP and VOIP.
  7. It has header size of 8 bytes.
  8. It has provision for error checking but not for reporting.
  9. It has no segments for acknowledgement.
  10. UDP uses a simple transmission model with no implicit hand-shaking dialogues.
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