Answered Essay: Chapter 1 discusses about data, including the different parts of a data set (elements

Chapter 1 discusses about data, including the different parts of a data set (elements, variables, and observations), scales of measurement, data sources/types of studies, and a very brief introduction to descriptive statistics and the statistical inference process (these two topics will be further discussed in later chapters).

Some sample statistics have been included in the slides and notes, and your text provides many more examples.

This week’s assignment involves you to locate the results of some type of statistical study online, and report the following:

1. A brief (2-3 lines) summary of the article you’re using, including a link to the source.

2. Identification of the elements and variables included in the study. List the scale of measurement for at least one variable.

3. Identification of the sample being studied and the population of interest.

4. Indicate whether the study includes time series or cross-sectional data and whether it is observational data or an experiment.

Expert Answer



Smoking and Pregnancy A Statistical Study of 5,659 Patients – By George C. Dowling, and William E. Chapman.

The study was carried out to find the relationship between maternal smoking and adverse effects in pregnancy such as premature births. The study was carried out on 5659 patients of the Palo Alto Medical Clinic. The number of smokers in the study was 2630 and the rest were nonsmokers.


The variables included were –

  1. The number of smokers who have given premature births (units in counts)
  2. The number of nonsmokers who have given a premature birth (units in counts)
  3. The number of smokers who have given full term births (units in counts)
  4. The number of nonsmokers who have given a full-term birth (units in counts)


The sample being studied is of 5659 patients registered in the Palo Alto Medical Clinic. The population is the total number of mothers in the world.


The study includes six years data of the Palo Alto Medical Clinic starting from 1952. The data is a time-series data and it is an observational data and not an experimental data.

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