Answered Essay: Find an article in the newspaper or other media that uses components of the evidence-based

Find an article in the newspaper or other media that uses components of the evidence-based public health approach e.g. presents the burden of disease, draws, conclusions about causation, and presents evidence-based recommendations, and/or discussed implementation and evaluation. Briefly, explain which element of the PERI approach is utilized in the article.

Use supporting sources as necessary. Make sure to use proper in text citations.

Expert Answer

Evidence-based public health research and practice during the last century has achieved many notable feats and contributed to an average 30-year gain in life expectancy across the globe. In this analysis I’m referring to an interesting article captioned Evidence-Based Public Health by Stefan K. Lhachimi, Malgorzata M. Bala and Giedrius Vanagas published in BioMed Research International. This article lists a number of recent studieson EBPH. You may access the same online.

Let us first take a look at what the P.E.R.I approach is and then explore which of its aspects have been utilised in one of our reference studies.

P = Problem ; We begin by asking, what is the health problem?

E = Etiology ; What are the causes contributing to the problem?

R = Recommendations ; What do we need to do to reduce the problem’s impact?

I = Implementation ; How do we get the job done?

It is widely believed that, EBPH is nothing but the application of EBM (Evidence-Based Medicine) to the group-decision making process on issues concerning public health.Key components of a broader definition of EBPH are: a) making decisions on the basis of the best available scientific evidence using sound data collection and research methods and (b) constantly engaging with the community affected by decisions thus made. An evidence-based approach to public health may potentially have various direct and indirect benefits, including access to more and higher-quality information on best practices, a higher likelihood of successful prevention programs and policies, greater workforce productivity, and more efficient use of public and private resources.

A valuable workhorse of EBPH is meta-analysis of the impact of evidence-based medicine on specific control-groups. For example, G. A. Kelley et al. conducted a systematic review titled “Exercise and BMI in Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Trial Sequential Meta-Analysis” utilizing a trial sequential meta-analysis approach. This approach combines conventional meta-analysis methodology with meta-analytic sample size considerations; inferences derived from this method may potentially improve reliability of estimates.

Now let us move to our reference article, “Exercise and BMI in Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Trial Sequential Meta-Analysis” by G. A. Kelley et al. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of exercise on body mass index (BMI in kg·m−2) among overweight and obese children and adolescents. The reason for choosing this particular article is that it includes all components of the P.E.R.I Framework. Let us now analyse these components one by one.

  • Problem : The first stage in understanding the problem is to gauge its impact or, the burden of disease as the medical community prefers to call it. In our case the problem may be stated as follows: From a worldwide perspective, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 2013 was reported to be approximately 23% among children and adolescents in developed countries and 13% among children and adolescents from developing countries The prevalence of being overweight and/or obese in children and adolescents has become a pandemic both in the United States (US) and worldwide. It has been observed that in the US alone, prevalence of obesity is 16.9% higher now as compared to figures reported 30 years ago.

The burden of disease may be stated in terms of reduced life expectancy and increased medical costs of overweight / obese children compared to those of children of normal weight. Obesity has been reported to be the third leading cause of preventable death in the US. Studies have estimated that, the incremental lifetime medical cost of an obese 10-year-old child in the US, in relation to a normal weight child who maintained normal weight throughout adulthood, was $19,000. Based on the current number of obese 10-year-olds in the US, the total direct medical costs associated with obesity have been estimated at $14 billion for this age alone. As they grow up, 70% of obese youth show at least one cardiovascular disease risk factor. In addition, obese children and adolescents suffer from a greater incidence of other conditions that include musculoskeletal pain, injuries and fractures, obstructive sleep apnea and poorer self-esteem and quality of life as compared to their normal weight peers.

  • Etiology : The most potent cause of obesity in children has been identified as poor parenting. Healthy eating habits are not imparted to children at a young age which leads them to develop a fondness for fried junk food or fizzy (carbonated) drinks. Children become overweight and/or obese for a variety of reasons. The most common causes are genetic factors, lack of physical activity, unhealthy eating patterns, or a combination of these factors. Only in rare cases is being overweight caused by a medical condition such as a hormonal problem. A physical exam and some blood tests can rule out the possibility of a medical condition as the cause for obesity. Although weight problems run in families, not all children with a family history of obesity will be overweight.
  • Recommendations: It is important to address the problem at its root. Children born to overweight parents or those with a genetic history of obesity should be screened at birth. Special training should be imparted to parents to impart proper exercise and eating habits to prevent these children to grow up to become obese / overweight adults.
  • Implementation: A minimum recommended 30 minute exercise regimen should be followed. IN addition proper food-education and healthy eating habits should be included in the regular school curriculum to generate awareness of the consequences of obesity.
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