Answered Essay: Fractional distillation is used to separate the components of a 50:50 mixture of heptane

Fractional distillation is used to separate the components of a 50:50 mixture of heptane (C7H16) and octane (C8H18). A distillation graph shows the temperature in °C (y-axis) versus volume of distillate (x-axis) for the process. Match each label with its corresponding target and answer the question below.pure CH16 130 120 110 10 pure CaH18 boil C7H16 boll CgH18 90

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Answer

The correct figure with correct corresponding targets is as follows pure C 130 pure CaH 120 100 90 Pure CH is obtained at lower isothermal curve, since here pure vapor of heptane is distilled Boiling point of CH6 is obtained around 98 degrees Celsius Pure CH8 is obtained at upper isothermal curve, since here pure vapor of octane is distilled. Boiling point of CH1s is obtained around 127 degrees Celsius Since, vapor pressure of heptane is more than that of octane, increase in the mole fraction of heptane will increase its partial pressure and hence increases the total pressure As total pressure becomes equal to atmospheric pressure, solution boils More total pressure will equilibrate with atmospheric pressure sooner than before, thereby, lowering the boiling point of mixture Hence, 90:10 heptane-octane mixture boils at lower temperature than for 50:50 mixture.

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