Answered Essay: List 3 differences between the "traditional" viewpoint and the "systems" viewpoint and explain

List 3 differences between the “traditional” viewpoint and the “systems” viewpoint and explain why the systems perspective is important for management of agricultural systems.

Expert Answer

The Systems Viewpoint of Management recognises that an organisation is an association of interrelated and interdependent parts or sub-systems. A business organisation is what might be called a “system” made up of many “sub-systems” such as employees, teams, departments, divisions, subsidiaries, who all need to work together to achieve the organisation’s goals. The organisation also has to interact with various external “systems” such as suppliers, customers, shareholders and government agencies, for example. A manager with a systems view of management will only make decisions after identifying and analysing how other managers, departments, or customers might be affected by the decisions.

The Traditional Viewpoint of Managementfocuses on what managers do. It is generally accepted that they perform the following four functions:-Planning: This involves defining organizational goals and proposing ways to reach them.Organizing: This is the process of creating a structure of relationships within the organization that will enable employees to interact with one another, to interact with managers and to carry out management’s plans and meet its goals.Leading: This involves communicating with and motivating others to perform the tasks necessary to achieve the organization’s goals.Controlling: This is the process by which a person consciously monitors performance and takes corrective action. In the control process, managers: set standards of performance measure current performance against those standards take action to correct any deviations, and adjust the standards if necessary.

The innovation systems perspective:-
While perspectives espousing an engagement with institutional context have
occupied only a modest amount of attention in the international agricultural
research policy community, the perspective has come to dominate the policy debate
and practice in other research and economic sectors. It is surprising to find that

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