Answered Essay: MARKETING OPERATING THE WORLD ARENA A)    Exporting: 1) Indirect and 2) Direct



A)    Exporting: 1) Indirect and 2) Direct

B)    Joint Venturing: 1) Licensing, 2) Contract Manufacturing, 3) Joint Ownership and 4) Management Contracting

C)    Direct

Briefly discuss the Three (3) general types of international marketing listed above. Select an appropriate example firm for each and discuss the basic strategic implications for each example firm within the selected international marketing type.

a) Exporting:

b) Joint Venturing

c) Direct

Expert Answer


Exporting: Exporting can be seen as the activities of selling he domestically produced products to the customers in foreign countries. There are mainly two types of exporting which are direct and indirect exporting. In case of indirect export, the firms are allowed to sell the products directly to the intermediaries located in the foreign market. While in case of direct exports, the firms are allowed to sell their products directly to the final customers of foreign countries. A typical example of exports can be seen in the form of China which is considered to be the largest exporters in the world market at the present time. The firms operating in China sells their products directly and indirectly to the foreign importers and customers.

b)   Joint Venturing:

The situation where a domestic firm purchases the part of the foreign country’s company or it forms a new venture or firm to other firms in foreign countries, it is termed as joint venturing. The most important aspect of joint venturing is that it is very cost effective and requires lesser funds and investments to enter into foreign trade and having the exposure of it.But there are some incidents such one partner buys the share of other partners in the joint ventures which could result in the failure of such an arrangement. A typical example of the successful joint venture is Robert Mondavi Wines which created a joint venture with another firm named Baron Philippe de Rothschild, the owner of Bordeaux’s Chateau. Both of the firms developed a new wine in California and y branded it as Opus One and it was a successful joint venture as the firms in the venture gained a lot of financial advantages. Thus, it is clear that a successful joint venture can results a lot of the business advantages of the firm has the potential of supporting all the companies versus competing with each other.

c)   Direct:

Direct investment is also known as foreign direct investment and it can be treated as an active ownership of a foreign firm or of overseas manufacturing or marketing facilities. A typical example of foreign direct investment can be been when a foreign firm decides to invest in the USA. In 2012, the level of FDI in the USA rose up to the high level s f $2.7 trillion and ever since the USA is receiving he higher FDIs in comparison to any other country In the world. In case of direct investment, the direct investor has the right to regulate the interest or larger minority interest in the firm owned which will facilitate the higher potential rewards and risks.

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