Answered Essay: "Negotiation tactics are the thorough devices used by negotiators to gain an advantage. At

“Negotiation tactics are the thorough devices used by negotiators to gain an advantage. At times, they can be deceptive and manipulative.” It is true that at times there may be some manipulation in negotiations such as “selective presentation” which is when a negotiator will only reveal the positive aspects of a proposal and will avoid disclosing any information that may be viewed unfavorably by the other party to the negotiation. This is a tactic which is used; however, is it ethical or is it just smart negotiations?

Expert Answer

Yes! it is ethical to use smart negotiations during different circumstances. However, there exists an ethical dilemma when a negotiator does a selective presentation and only reveals the positive aspects of a proposal.

Some of the key Integrative Negotiation principles are as follows:

Multiple Issues – This more often than not involve a massive amount of issues to be negotiated, dissimilar to distributive negotiations which usually revolve around the cost. In this type, the gain should be as same as profit sharing model or you do something good for me and I do something good for your value.

Sharing – To completely understand each other’s situation, both the sides must honestly share as much data as possible which suits each other’s interests appropriately. The issue cannot be solved unless sharing the parameters. Collaboration is very important.

Problem Solving – Finding solutions to each other’s issues. While you offer a certain thing of slightly lower value that gives the counter partner a little what they need… This frequent fallout in recognizing the objective where we have integrated our problems into an optimistic solution.

Bridge Building – More businesses are looking for appealing in long term relationships. Such Relationships offer the greater deal and sense of security.

1. When it comes to attending meetings, Americans would always prefer prior appointments and schedule. For Japan, most of the times prior notice is not required.

2. For an American, there is a direct correlation between stuff that is urgent and the time. Any important things require immediate attention & action. This is quite opposite in Japan where important stuff requires more time for reflection.

3. When it comes to negotiation, Americans are preoccupied with the articles in a negotiation while Japan focuses on the relationship between them and their opponents.

4. In Japan society, being silent and remain quiet is treated as maturity. However, for an American being quiet means one knows nothing.

Techniques to overcome these differences so they do not affect the success or failure of business negotiations:

1. Creating Mutual Trust – Japan believes long term relationship cannot be maintained without mutual trust. However, Westerners believe in drawing a line between business and the personal relationships. In Business situations with Japan, an American must consider establishing trust.

2. Identification of the Decision Makers – Westerners consults his superior before making a decision which is not the case with Japan.

3. Overcome the Language Barrier – While American speaks US English, Mandarin is the official language in Japan. One must consider understanding the body language of the negotiator than depending up on the translator completely.

Strengths – Americans believe everything is negotiable, they never pay in window sticker price, they start slowly and be patient, they make small concessions especially at the end, they watch out for creative alternatives

Weakness – Americans lack the ability to tolerate interruptions, while other Asian nations prefer to exchange ideas first, American’s prefer to go item by item.

These strengths and weakness certainly play an instrumental role in the success and failure of the negotiation process. When an American try and understands the Japan culture before the negotiation process, he/she is almost into the minds of their Japan partners. When they respond to them in their own language (here language is not the literal meaning) when it comes to following some of the behavioral traits explained earlier, the communication is seamless even without knowing the local language. In the aspect of communication, 90% of the information is passed through non-verbal cues and in informal modes. Hence these are quite significant when it comes to decision making and negotiations.

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