Answered Essay: Write a Java program to find the inverse of a square matrix. Let the user ente

Write a Java program to find the inverse of a square matrix. Let the user enter the size of the matrix up to size 21, and enter the matrix values from the keyboard. Check to make sure if the matrix is singular. Output the original matrix and its inverse. Finally, ask the user if he/she wishes to run the program again. Error check input and format the output. Use a method calculate the inverse. Refer to the sample output below.

Sample Run:

Enter the size of the Matrix (<=21) : 3

Enter the matrix values: 1 4 2 2 5 8 2 1 8

Original matrix:

1 4 2

2 5 8

2 1 8

Inverse matrix:

2       -1.875       1.375

Expert Answer


import java.util.Scanner;

public class Inverse


public static void main(String argv[])


Scanner input = new Scanner(;

System.out.println(“Enter the size of the Matrix (<=21) : “);

int n = input.nextInt();

double a[][]= new double[n][n];

System.out.println(“Enter the matrix values: “);

for(int i=0; i<n; i++)

for(int j=0; j<n; j++)

a[i][j] = input.nextDouble();


System.out.println(“Original: “);

for(int i=0; i<n; i++)


for(int j=0;j<n; j++)


System.out.print(a[i][j]+” “);






double d[][] = inverse(a);

System.out.println(“The inverse is: “);

for (int i=0; i<n; ++i)








for (int j=0; j<n; ++j)


System.out.print(d[i][j]+” “);







public static double[][] inverse(double a[][])


int n = a.length;

double x[][] = new double[n][n];

double b[][] = new double[n][n];

int index[] = new int[n];

for (int i=0; i<n; ++i)

b[i][i] = 1;

// Transform the matrix into an upper triangle

gaussian(a, index);

// Update the matrix b[i][j] with the ratios stored

for (int i=0; i<n-1; ++i)

for (int j=i+1; j<n; ++j)

for (int k=0; k<n; ++k)


-= a[index[j]][i]*b[index[i]][k];

// Perform backward substitutions

for (int i=0; i<n; ++i)


x[n-1][i] = b[index[n-1]][i]/a[index[n-1]][n-1];

for (int j=n-2; j>=0; –j)


x[j][i] = b[index[j]][i];

for (int k=j+1; k<n; ++k)


x[j][i] -= a[index[j]][k]*x[k][i];


x[j][i] /= a[index[j]][j];



return x;


// Method to carry out the partial-pivoting Gaussian

// elimination. Here index[] stores pivoting order.

public static void gaussian(double a[][], int index[])


int n = index.length;

double c[] = new double[n];

// Initialize the index

for (int i=0; i<n; ++i)

index[i] = i;

// Find the rescaling factors, one from each row

for (int i=0; i<n; ++i)


double c1 = 0;

for (int j=0; j<n; ++j)


double c0 = Math.abs(a[i][j]);

if (c0 > c1) c1 = c0;


c[i] = c1;


// Search the pivoting element from each column

int k = 0;

for (int j=0; j<n-1; ++j)


double pi1 = 0;

for (int i=j; i<n; ++i)


double pi0 = Math.abs(a[index[i]][j]);

pi0 /= c[index[i]];

if (pi0 > pi1)


pi1 = pi0;

k = i;



// Interchange rows according to the pivoting order

int itmp = index[j];

index[j] = index[k];

index[k] = itmp;

for (int i=j+1; i<n; ++i)


double pj = a[index[i]][j]/a[index[j]][j];

// Record pivoting ratios below the diagonal

a[index[i]][j] = pj;

// Modify other elements accordingly

for (int l=j+1; l<n; ++l)

a[index[i]][l] -= pj*a[index[j]][l];






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