Answered Essay: You are given a black box that has either a 30-sided die or a 34-sided die inside. Each time you push the box

Cryptography

You are given a black box that has either a 30-sided die or a 34-sided die inside. Each time you push the box’s button the die is rolled and you are told the resulting value. You are allowed q presses of the button. In pseudocode, give an algorithm that pushes the button q times and then guesses either “30-sides” or “34-sides”. Evaluate the advantage your algorithm achieves as a function of q.

Expert Answer

 

Data from the final moments before EgyptAir flight MS804 crashed into the Mediterranean suggest an “internal explosion” tore through the right side of the aircraft, a pilot said last night.

Investigators trying to determine whether the A320 was brought down by terrorism or a technical fault are poring over a series of warnings indicating smoke filled the cabin shortly before it disappeared from radar.

French authorities confirmed that smoke detectors went off aboard the flight a few minutes before it crashed but said it was not clear what caused the smoke or fire.

A commercial pilot with a major European airline told The Telegraph that other parts of the data log suggested that windows in the right side of the cockpit were blown out by an explosion inside the aircraft.

“It looks like the right front and side window were blown out, most probably from inside out,” said the pilot, who flies an A330 similar to the crashed A320 and spoke on condition of anonymity.

The data was taken from the plane’s Acars system, which sends short transmissions from the aircraft to receivers on the ground.

Until investigators find the aircraft’s black boxes, which are still missing in the Mediterannean, the Acars offers the best sens on what was happening aboard.

Three different warnings showed there were faults in the windows next to the co-pilot, suggesting they could have been blasted outwards by an onboard bomb. That does not mean the explosion came from the cockpit but indicates the right side of the plane was more badly damaged than the left.

The pilot suggested the smoke detectors may have been triggered not fire but by fog which filled the cabin as it lost air pressure in the moments after the explosion.

Meanwhile, the Egyptian military released images of shoes, handbags and other forlorn items pulled out of the sea near the crash site. Video footage showed unused life vests and torn up parts of seats scattered across the deck of an Egyptian naval ship.

French and Egyptian ships are focused on trying to recover the black boxes, which would reveal what said in the cockpit before the plane crashed.

Although no terrorist group has claimed responsibility, French detectives are examining a pool of around 85,000 people with “red badge” security clearance that gives them access to restricted areas of Charles de Gaulle airport.

The task is complicated by the fact that many work for sub-contractors and turnover is high. Screenings are often limited to checking an employee has no criminal convictions and does not appear on a terror watch list.

Last December around 70 red badges were withdrawn from staff at Charles de Gaulle who were found to have praised the attacks in Paris, prayed at mosques linked to radicalism or showing signs of growing religiosity like refusing to shake hands with women.

A French trade union also warned that short stopovers like that made by Flight 804, which was on the ground a little over an hour, gave little time for security staff to carry out thro

With no bodies to bury, Egypt continued to mourn the loss of 30 of its citizens but was unable to carry out formal funerals.

Among the dead was a husband and wife who sold everything to pay for lifesaving cancer treatment and now leave behind their three young children as orphans.

Ahmed Ashery, 31, sold his family’s flat and car to raise money so his wife Reham could undergo cancer surgery in France, according the Egyptian newspaper Masrawy.

The couple left their young son and two daughters with his mother and spent a month in Paris, where Mrs Ashery had surgery and seemed on the path to a full recovery. They boarded Flight 804 on Wednesday night excited to be reunited with their small children but the plane never made it back to Cairo.

“Ahmed sold everything to save his wife and ease her grief,” said Mohamed al-Shenawi, a family friend.

“I advised him to accept the command of God and look for treatment in Egypt but he insisted on travelling. They spent a month and then they returned onboard the plane which didn’t arrive and now will never arrive.”

Family and friends of flight attendant Yara Hany Farag gathered at a Coptic church in Cairo to grieve around a large cross of white flowers with a picture of the young woman. Her grandmother stood in front of the picture crying: “Yara answer me, I want hold you.”

Her mother described her unmarried daughter as “a bride for heaven”.

Earlier in the day the family were asked by EgyptAir to provide DNA samples to help with eventual identification of bodies. So far a few human parts but no full bodies have been recovered.

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